Effects of Having Ofw Parents
Topic: Effects of Having an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) Parent on the Academic Performance of Tertiary School Students from First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities (FAITH), First Semester AY 2011-2012 I. Target Readers: Students who have an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) parent II. Research Objectives: After reading this research paper, FAITH tertiary students should be able to: 1. Cite the advantages of having an OFW parent in terms of the following aspects: a. Financial b. Behavioral c. Academic 2. Cite the disadvantages of having an OFW parent in terms of the following aspects: a.
Financial b. Behavioral c. Academic 3. Determine if there is a relationship between having an OFW parent and performing well in school. III. Hypothesis: Having an OFW parent does not affect a tertiary student’s academic performance. IV. Definition of Terms: OFW-Overseas Filipino Worker, Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin who lives outside of the Philippines. This term applies both to people of Filipino ancestry who are citizens or residents of a different country and to those Filipino citizens abroad on a more temporary status. AY-Academic Year
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Gadgets-Modern electronic equipments Phenomena-Plural of phe. nom-e. non (Noun) – A remarkable event Exclusive – In this research it is private school. Empeded-to interfere with or slow the progress of Remittances-a : a sum of money remitted b : an instrument by which money is remitted Disruption -is the (usually deliberate or intended) interruption of normal work or practice. Transmission -is the act of passing something on in another place. Affirm-1. To declare positively or firmly; maintain to be true. 2. To support or uphold the validity of; confirm.
Migrants -1. A person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another. 2. A plant or animal that establishes itself in an area where it previously did not exist. Dependency-1. Dependence. 2. Something dependent or subordinate. 3. A territory under the jurisdiction of a state of which it does not form an integral part. Perspective-a. A view or vista. b. A mental view or outlook Purposive-Having or serving a purpose. Manifest-readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious, apparent; plain: a manifest error.
Psychoanalysis . of or pertaining to conscious feelings, ideas,and impulses that contain repressed psychic material: themanifest content of a dream as opposed to the latent content that it conceals. V. Introduction Decision making is a vital part of an individual’s life. Parents wanting to improve their lives and the lives of their families join the forces of the so-called new heroes of modern Filipino Society. In the process the migration affects the lives of those who move and those who are left behind.
Moreover, the children of OFWs especially students, manifest different social behaviors related to migration of either one or both parents, leaving an emotional mark especially when mothers are away. In the previously study by Battistella and Conaco (1996), it was pointed out that children with absent mothers showed poorer social adjustment and suffered impeded psychological development. While students admit to be doing well after being left by either or both parents, issues regarding this matter still surface. In Asia, the Philippines is the major supplier of laborers to more than 100 countries worldwide.
In the economic aspect, the result is positive through its remittances for the welfare of the families left behind, but in the social aspect, there are negative results though the numbers are not measured. One example of the negative result is having a broken family, for either the mother or father dependency of each other is lessened and could end up in a separation which can affect the normal behavior of their children without having a parent role model. Another negative example is when the father migrates to another country to work, the wife assumes more responsibilities in the absence of her husband.
Another setback on the effect of the OFW phenomena is when absent parenting is being replaced by material wealth and gadgets (e. g. , cell phone, laptop, iPod, PSP, XBOX, Wii, etc. ) to affirm the affection of absent parent, this could result in material expectation rather than affection (Reyes, Melanie, 2003: Migration and Filipino Children Left Behind). Based on several studies done by government and non-government organizations, about nine (9) million Filipino children under the age of 18 are left behind by one or both parents to work attentively or live permanently abroad (Hugo, Graeme, 2005).
However, the major reason for working abroad among OFW’s is to send their children to good, preferably exclusive schools from primary up to college because they acknowledge that the best thing they can give their children is the right for education. Therefore more OFW children are enrolled in private schools and are more likely to participate in extra-curricular activities and gain exposure. These do not only broaden their learning, but also make them gain overall academic performance compared to students with strict budget.
This research study aims to seek if the students demand more time from their parents as for material satisfaction and for parental attention leading to good academic performance. A huge percentage of the parent’s remittances go to tuition fees of their children, allowing them to enroll in private school offering quality education. Being a student with an OFW parent could make it difficult one to cope with his/her studies. Some aspects affect them because of the absence of the parent psychologically, emotionally and academically. VI. Review of related Literature
The impact of migration varies – ranging from economic benefits not only for the family but the country in generally through its remittances to the security and well being of the family of migrants. But a major concern here is the social costs of migration specifically to the children left behind. A study by Scalabrini reveals that there is a variation in terms of gender roles when women migrate compared to men. “When men migrate, the left behind wives indeed assumed more responsibilities with their dual roles as fathers and mothers.
But when women migrate, it appears that families go through more adjustments – this is not surprising because changes in women’s roles often have more implications for the family than changes in men’s roles. If women assume men’s responsibilities when the men are not around, men do not as readily take up care giving. (Scalabrini, Hearts Apart, 2003). This interchanging of gender roles in the family could also impact positively or negatively depending on how the father left behind accepts his “new” role. Parental absence creates “displacement, disruptions and changes in care giving arrangement. There is always an emotional aspect that goes along with parents leaving their children, especially for long periods of time. Nevertheless, it is also a relief to have the extended family looking after the children left-behind. However, it cannot negate the fact that the children are longing for the love and care of their biological parents. Family structure, household resources, numbers of siblings competing for those resources, and parents’ own educational attainment are often important predictors of children’s education outcomes.
Overseas migration of parents from the Philippines has resulted in increasing numbers of long-term separations of parents from each other and from their children. Western-based analyses might predict negative education outcomes for children as a result of parental absence. We find that separations caused by overseas migration often are either neutral or can have positive effects on schooling outcomes, at least among older children. Girls fare better in terms of educational attainment than do boys overall. Boys are often more affected by background variables, including parents’ international migration Arguillas & Williams, 2010). Compared to public perceptions about the negative impact of migration to children, most research studies reveal a different perspective. Several studies (i. e. Cruz, 1987; Asis, 2000 & 2006; Parrenas, 2006; Bryant, 2007) conducted did not show a big difference in terms of attitudes, behaviors, and values between children of migrants and non migrants. This was also validated by the 2003 Children and Families Study of Scalabrini conducted in selected areas in Luzon (NCR, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna), Visayas (Cebu and Negros Occidental), and Mindanao (Davao).
There are several factors that may negatively or positively affect the formation and personal development of the children. Global parenting It was highly recognized that “the transmission of values, including spiritual formation, from one generation to the next is one of the major responsibilities vested in the family. ” But the 2003 study found that migration of parents did not matter in the formation of important values and spirituality since this is also passed on from parents or caregivers.
At the same time, through the help of advance technology, a different level of intimacy which also strengthens the linkage and nurturing bonding is being established among migrant families. This is what Tanalega (2002) is also talking about (Global Parenting) wherein parenting becomes a long distance love affair synchronized with the fast paced development of technology. The absence of the parents is substituted through the different technological mechanisms (cellphones, emails, videocams) to make their presence felt by their children even if they are thousand miles away.
Unfortunately, this “techy” parenting will still not replace the emotional bonding that can develop in the relationship when they are physically present. At the same time, they will miss the growing up years of their children and their value formation. Search for role models “The strength of family relationship particularly the children’s closeness to their parents, is reflected in the children’s choice of their parents as role models. ” Migration has somehow influenced the children’s choice of career and future plans. In the 2003 study, 60% of OFW respondents would like to work abroad and would like to take courses in medicine/nursing, eaching, and engineering/architecture. This view is likewise supported by Anonuevo (2002) showing an alarming reality in terms of children’s aspiration to work like their parents. Even if they dream of finishing college education, they already developed in their consciousness that they could get a higher salary abroad even without having a college diploma. Academic performance and school behavior Unlike the perceived notions, children of migrants performed well especially during grade school compared to non migrant children (based on the study of Scalabrini).
But it was also evident that children of migrant mothers tend to score lower than the other children. This finding also came out in the 1996 study (Battistella and Conaco) and seems to suggest the importance of mother’s presence in the academic performance of the children. At the same time, based from the actual interview and observation of Parrenas (2006) in the conduct of her study, the two boys she met in one school that was labeled as trouble maker by the guidance counselor have acted with respect and obedience and have higher cognitive skills.
This can also be seen in Cruz’ study (1987), where students’ performance did not show significant difference between children of migrants and non-migrants, majority even received good ratings in terms of conduct and discipline in class from the teachers (78% children of migrants and 81% children of non-migrants). Cruz (1987) also noted that children of migrants interact more with classmates and actively participate in class discussion/activities and extra-curricular activities.
Asis (2000) also did not find any empirical evidence to prove that children of migrant workers are more likely to engage in juvenile delinquency than children of non-migrants. General well being The 2003 study found that “children of migrants were generally fine and faring better than the children of non migrants”. Surprisingly, “children of migrants are less anxious and less lonely compared with the children of non migrants”. This is in contrast with Battistella and Conaco’s (1996) findings showing children of migrant parents experiencing higher anxiety and loneliness.
However, the low level of anxiety and loneliness can also be attributed to the increase of family communication. On a sad note, the children of migrant mothers reported being lonely, angry, unloved, unfeeling, afraid, different from the other children, and worried compared to all groups of children, including non OFW children. VII. Methodology Sample Technique Formula: n= _N_ 1+Ne2 Basically, Guilford, J. P. and B. Fruchter (1973), initiated that it is advisable to use the Slovin’s Formula in choosing sample size.
Thus, the sample size of the population in this paper was determined by slovin’s formula. The Formula of slovin is given as follows: Where: n= a sample size N= Population size e= Desired margin of errors First, the respondents shall fill out a self administered questionnaire. Ideally, the respondents will fill out each statement in the survey questionnaire using a slovin’s formula. The researcher opted the use the questionnaire as a tool since it is easy to construct having the rules and principles of construction are easy to follow.
Moreover, copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents either by mail or by personal distribution. Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardized and these make tabulation easy. But more importantly, the respondents’ replies are of their own free will because there is no interview to influence them. VIII. Presentation of Data The respondents were 30 second year tertiary Students of FAITH who are all children of OFWs. The survey questionnaire had respondent’s personal circumstance, respondent’s family background, it had four open ended question (e. . positive and negative effects of the migration of their parents, effects on the academic performance and financial stability). Purposive sampling was employed because only the tertiary students for the 1st semester of AY 2011-2012, who have one or both parents working abroad, were included in the study. The data gathered were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Answers to the survey questionnaires were tabulated and classified. Table 1 Age Group of the Respondents Age| Nos. | 16| 6| 17| 6| 18| 7| 9| 6| 22| 5| Total| 30| The answers of the above respondents were classified as below: Table 2 Respondent’s Personal Circumstance | Yes| No| Parents Abroad| | | Mother| 18| | Father| 9| | Both| 3| | Financial Support (Education)| 28| 2| Longing| 26| 4| Independent| 27| 3| Academic Performance| 9| 21| IX. Analysis of Data In this study majority of the respondents indicated that their parents are giving them financial support on their education; it is a strong motivation to pursue studying to improve their lives.
Also, they acknowledge the opportunity of studying in high standard institution because of their parents’ migration, but nonetheless their longing for their parents is a sadness reality in exchange for material stability of their family. In the aspect of children’s satisfaction with the time and money provided to them, results showed that OFW parents and their children give different importance to these inputs. While it is true that children do feel an increased satisfaction with the increase of adult attention and money from their parents, they give varied weights on their importance.
In a study made by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), March-April 2008, a development research news said that “It was also shown in the child preferences overall emotional state, relationship with parent OFW, relationship with siblings, relationship with other household members, health status, school performance, security for the future, extra-curricular activities participation, and participation in decision making that only 29 percent of them are happy with their family and participate in family decisions.
Nonetheless, 53 percent of these children said they are better off than their counterparts in terms of education. ” More mothers are now working abroad leaving their children behind, some of the respondents aged 19-22, specially female, says that they are more likely to be independent without their mothers, and sometimes they have to assume the responsibility of their mothers towards their siblings more than their father. This results double responsibility at home and in school, and could make more studying difficult.
For the respondents with their fathers working abroad, there is only a little difference because their mothers assumed the responsibility of both mother and father, and since the fathers are away, the mothers have more time to their children. In terms of the effects at home of a father working overseas, less adjustment in caregiving is needed in comparison to the adjustments required when it is the mother who works abroad. After all, a mother usually attends to almost 80 percent of the caregiving needed by her children.
Hence, when she is the one working overseas, her role is filled up by other female relatives or older siblings who take the role of caregivers in the family. When it is the father working abroad, the mother takes the role of both the father as head of the family and mother as nurturer of their children. For the respondents with both parents working abroad, longing is higher compared to single parent went abroad, but being a Filipino with extended family culture, this problem is lessen. Being a student there are advantages of having OFW parents, like: 1.
They are more likely to participate in school activities because they are financially capable than other students. 2. They are more likely to go out with classmates after class e. g. eating out, malling and playing computer games (this is cite as an advantage because it will improve their relationship and camaraderie with their classmates, but on the other hand this is a disadvantage as well because if they to do this often they will neglect their study hours). 3. They can study well being feeling secure that they don’t have to think about tuition fee related problems.
Disadvantages: 1. They are materially expectant from their parents. 2. They don’t think twice if they want to buy something even if it is just wants and not needs. They are not learning to budget wisely; sometimes they end up borrowing because they already spent their allowance before the month ends. 3. They feel incomplete without their parent/parents. In terms of relationship with their parents, this is not a problem anymore because of the modern communication used today, e. g. chat, texting and calling.
The absence of parents could not be felt through this modern communication, but some respondent says that they are envious of the other students especially if the presence of the parents is needed in school but this is just a minor problem that does not affect their academic performance. X. Conclusion/ Summary The study of having OFW parents were found to be significantly correlated with the academic performance of the students. However, it was a negative relationship with student’s academic performance.
Most of the OFW students performed either satisfactory or needs improvement in relation to their school activities same as the normal students. The academic performance between children whose fathers are working and those whose mothers are working abroad had no significant difference. XI. Literature Cited Battistella, Graziano and Ma. Cecilia G. Conaco 1996, The Impact of Labour Migration on the Children Left Behind http://www. unicef. org/philippines/Synthesis_StudyJuly12008. pdf Tan, Kimberly Jane, Leaving OFW children behind: Economic vs. Social costs, GMANews.
TV Espero, Catherine (ND) Correlates of career Decisions among Children of overseas Filipino Workers, Philippines Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), March-April 2008, Guilford, J. P. and B. Fruchter (1973) (The Impact of Parents’ Overseas Employment on Educational Outcomes of Filipino Children 1. Marie Joy B. Arguillas1, 2. Lindy Williams2 Article first published online: 7 JUN 2010 DOI: 10. 1111/j. 1747-7379. 2010. 00807. x http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/ http://www. thefreedictionary. com/