Sociology Exam 3: уrving goffman used the term, united states has the highest clustering

The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an “excess of definitions” about either deviance or conformity.
1) true
2) false

1) true
In an effort to resist the label of “deviant,” most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
1) ideologies
2) labeling
3) strategies of justification
4) techniques of neutralization

4) techniques of neutralization
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory
1) self-control theory
2) judgment theory
3) rationalization theory
4) control theory

4) control theory
Crime “in the suites” (white collar crime) actually costs the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost than “crime in the streets.”
1) true
2) false

1) true
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
1) positive sanction
2) shaming
3) negative sanction
4) degradation ceremony

1) positive sanction
John desires the best things in life – a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
1) an innovator
2) a ritualist
3) a anarchist
4) a rebel

1) an innovator
Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
1) the structuralist perspective
2) the symbolic interactionist perspective
3) the conflict perspective
4) the functionalist perspective

3) the conflict perspective
Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop to their respective groups and society.
1) True
2) False

1) true
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
1) role
2) stigma
3) sanction
4) master status

2) stigma
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
1) labeling
2) control
3) differential association
4) strain

1) labeling
In an effort to resist the label of “deviant,” most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
1) ideologies
2) techniques of neutralization
3) strategies of justification
4) labeling

2) techniques of neutralization
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
1) ethics
2) values
3) folkways
4) crimes

4) crimes
Crime “in the suites” (white collar crime) actually costs the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost than “crime in the streets.”
1) true
2) false

1) true
When Anthony worked as a prison counselor he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, “I had to feed my family.” How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?
1) condemnation of the condemners
2) denial of injury
3) appeal to higher loyalties
4) denial of responsibility

3) appeal to higher loyalties
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________.
1) strain
2) labeling
3) differential association
4) control

2) labeling
Functionalists would content that the growing crime rates among women are the result of chaining social location and gender roles giving women greater access to illegitimate opportunities.
1) true
2) false

1) true
The _______ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
1) strain
2) control
3) labeling
4) illegitimate opportunity

1) strain
All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?
1) labeling theory
2) differential association theory
3) control theory
4) strain theory

4) strain theory
The theory of differential association suggest that people who associate with certain groups receive an “excess of definitions” about either deviance of conformity.
1) true
2) false

1) true
By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists.
1) true
2) false

1) true
If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.
1) structural
2) upward
3) exchange
4) intergenerational

3) exchange
John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the most likely cause of John’s poverty?
1) changes in John’s value system are the most likely cause
2) changes in the social structure are the most likely cause
3) it is due to his unwillingness to work
4) he is not intelligent enough to get a better job

2) changes in the social structure are the most likely cause
Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?
1) the will experience social paranoia
2) they will experience anomie
3) they will have delusions of grandeur
4) their lives will be more stable and fulfilling

2) they will experience anomie
Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil’s high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.
1) status insecurity
2) status contradiction
3) status incompatibility
4) status inconsistency

4) status inconsistency
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
1) sex, power, education
2) occupation, neighborhood, wealth
3) wealth, power, prestige
4) ethnicity, race, sex

3) wealth, power, prestige
The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________.
1) the feminization of poverty
2) the male supremacy
3) the economic genderization
4) the culture of poverty

1) the feminization of poverty
Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.
1) true
2) false

1) true
In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social class ladder which results in the overall social class system showing little change.
1) true
2) false

1) true
When used by sociologists, the term “wealth” refers to ________.
1) the income made from a person’s occupation
2) the property that a person owns
3) the income after state and federal taxes have been withheld
4) the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person

4) the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person
People in the capitalist class are more likely to experience mental health problems because of the excessive stress associated with managing high-powered jobs.
1) true
2) false

2) false
What is Durkheim’s term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?
1) negative affective state
2) primogeniture
3) anomie
4)
compurgation

3) anomie
When used by sociologists, the term “wealth” refers to _______.
1) the property that a person owns
2) the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person
3) the income made from a person’s occupation
4) the income after state and federal taxes have been withheld

2) the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person
Which statement regarding the nation’s income is most accurate?
1) income earnings are just about evenly divided among all Americans
2) the top two-thirds of Americans earn about two-thirds of the income.
3) the top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income
4) the bottom 20 percent of Americans earn about 15 percent of the income

3) the top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income
Status inconsistency is common for winners of multimillion-dollars lotteries, especially when the status of their new wealth exceeds the status of their education and occupation.
1) true
2) false

1) true
What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refers to those who make the big decisions in American society?
1) the national security administration
2) the capitalists
3) the upper class
4) the power elite

4) the power elite
Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.
1) true
2) false

2) false
What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
1) the midwest
2) the north
3) the west
4) the south

4) the south
When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?
1) they will claim the lower status
2) they will pick the status that best fits the situation
3) they will ignore both statuses
4) they will claim the higher status

4) they will claim the higher status